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Teaching with a CLIL method: a reflective process of designing and conducting a CLIL unit

Karolina Żyra

B.A.

University of Warsaw

 

This article concerns the development of designing and implementing a CLIL unit during the teaching practice in the preschool. It describes the process of thinking about the topic and all the areas that CLIL includes: content, cognition, communication and culture. It is divided into three parts. The first one concerns the process of creating the unit. All the things that I had to take into consideration (like a particular group of students, the conditions in the classroom and the students needs) and  how I used my knowledge about CLIL. The second part consists of my evaluation and reflection about the whole process of not only designing, but also conducting the unit. Moreover, I describe all the changes that I had to implement and the challenges that I met while conducting the classes. The last part is a CLIL unit template that I have prepared with some materials that I used during the lessons. This article is a practical guide for the teachers who are considering to implement CLIL in their classroom. It gives a close look into the process of thinking, designing, conducting and also evaluating a CLIL unit. Furthermore, it is a real example of the whole process behind the CLIL unit.

 

Keywords: CLIL unit, reflection, evaluation, designing.

 

Karolina Żyra is a graduate of Early Education with specialization in Teaching English to Young Learners at the University of Gdańsk. Currently she is a student of M.A. studies: Graduate Programme in Teaching English to Young Learners at the University of Warsaw.

 

Introduction

Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is an educational approach with dual-focus in which content and language learning and teaching is done with the use of an additional language, which is the foreign language, but it may also be the second or some form of heritage language (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). The focus is on both the content and the language at the same time and not only on one of those as on the usual lesson. CLIL not only shares some elements of a variety of educational practices, but is also closely related to them (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). This approach is different from the existing language-teaching approaches, because it not only is content-driven, but also it extends the learning experience. Moreover, CLIL’s flexibility allows it to be adapted to different contexts, but at the same time to be able to do that it has to be rigorous and transparent in practice. The term itself is a inclusive, because it binds the essence of good practice from different environments where its principles have been adopted (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). For good CLIL practice we need to realize it through methods that will provide a more holistic educational experience for the learner. Furthermore, the potential of this approach it is extending across the continents (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). CLIL offers more holistic experience to students and also to the teachers by focusing on both language and content.

 

Creating the CLIL unit

All the teachers know that planning and preparing the lesson can be a very time-consuming task. As for the CLIL lessons, they are much more complicated and as a result the teacher has to be prepared to devote a great amount of time to plan them. Another thing that we have to bear in mind is the lack of ready made materials that can be used. There are some resources that were design for the English speaking students, but if the teacher wants to use them then he or she has to adjust them.  Personally for me the best solution is to just create all the materials, because in that way I can be sure that they are appropriate for the students who are learning English as a second language.

 

First step in the process of planning and creating a CLIL unit is the consideration of the topic. It may sound simple, but it is a complicated part that should require a lot of thinking. Choosing an area for CLIL lessons is a conscious process. During that the teacher has to consider not only what topic is suitable for the students and a specific classroom situation. The other thing that we have to think of is the theme or topic that is broad enough to create a series of lessons out of it. I choose a water, because it can be looked at from different angles and it is also something that is well known to the children, but still there are some new things that they can learn.

 

If we have a topic then we can move to the next step which is the planning the various areas of the curriculum. In that part we should consider: general studies, mathematics, music, art, IT, PE and RE. In my unit I also thought about the extra activities that the teacher can do as a part of the lesson or just additionally. During this part I thought about different information that not only may be useful, but also interesting and new for the group of students that I had my practice with. During the planning I had to take into consideration important variables like students’ needs and the conditions not only of the classroom, but also of the preschool. This particular place had a very unique schedule of lessons. There were some situations that some classes had to be moved and then the English lesson had to be earlier or even shorter. I had to be prepared for any situation that could occur and at the same time I included it in my CLIL unit. Moreover, my unit had to be connected with the National Curriculum.

 

After a quite long time of planning and at the same time still thinking about the variables I was finally able to write down my ideas for each of the areas of curriculum. In the general studies I had: different types of water (oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, rain), kinds of water (salt and sweat), states of matter (solid, liquid, gas), the cycle of the water, who needs water (humans, animals, plants – all living things) and the last, but not least various experiments (what floats and what sinks, melting the ice, pouring water into containers of different shapes. In the mathematics I chose counting the raindrops. The students were subtracting and adding cut out raindrops which they later used for different activities. For the music part I thought about: singing the song about the water cycle, playing on glasses filled with water, being the rain (the students listen to the sounds of the rain first light and then heavy and thunderstorm – their task is to express and illustrate what they hear with their movement), game called “Drop, drop, stop” (the children listen to the sound of the rain and they move and when the sound pauses they have to stop) and the rain invocation. All of these activities are not only a great energizers, but also can help children to be more aware of their body. The next part was the art and here I had ideas like: creating a cloud (in this activity the students created a cloud and at the same time made a visual representation of the water cycle), drawing on water and making a raft (this activity is building on the knowledge from the previous lesson). As for the IT, the choice was much simpler, because we can always find some on-line games or videos that can explain the important processes that may be hard to explain with just words. The only problem with this part may be the lack of the computers in the classroom. In the preschool that I had my practice they did not have computers so it would be problematic to bring my own laptop. That is why it is so important to fist find out about the conditions of the classroom.

 

The two most difficult parts turned out to be PE and RE. After a lot of thinking I finally found some activities that are connected to these parts. For the PE these were: rain invocation, water in sports and all the TPR games used during the vocabulary practice. Finally the water in different cultures and countries as a part of RE (the children learn about the meaning of the water in different cultures like the Holy Water or Ganges). As the last part I was thinking about some extra activities that can be used as a project or outside the school. These were: a trip to the zoo to see animals that live in the water and animals that spend the most of their time in the water (the animals that they had a chance to learn about), a field trip to see different types of water (puddles, rain, small river or maybe even a dew) and as a homework the students could bring various types of water that they have at home and then during the lesson the whole classroom would measure the pollution of each one of them.

 

After choosing the topic and the ideas for each of the areas of the curriculum we can move to the next step which is the 4 Cs framework. The 4 Cs stand for communication, content, cognition and culture. The content can be summarized as a progress in not only skills and new knowledge, but also in understanding. Coyle, Hood and Marsh (2010) describe it as a subject or the theme of CLIL. In this part we list all new concepts that our students will learn and understand. Moreover, we also include the skills that they will develop during the unit. The content part of my CLIL unit consists of: the water cycle, states of matter, importance of water for living things, types and kinds of water, water in various countries and cultures and water in everyday life and sport. As for the skills I listed that students will learn how to explain and describe different processes. Moreover, they will be able to make visual representation of the water cycle or to present it with using their movement. Cognition can be summarized as being engaged in higher-order thinking skills, but also understanding, accepting a challenge and ability to reflect on it and solving problems (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). CLIL needs to be a challenge for learners in order to be effective. They need to create knew knowledge and develop new skills by reflecting and engagement in higer-order and lower-order thinking (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). Lower-order thinking skills are: remembering, understanding and applying. Analyzing, evaluating and creating are classed as higher-order thinking skills. However, it is not enough to just describe which lesson and activity is  connected with which level of thinking. The teacher has to think about the questions that students are going to answer that are attributed to a concrete level. For remembering pupils can answer questions like: “What is…?”, “How would you show…?” and many others. “Can you explain what is happening…?” and “What can you say about…?” can be asked for understanding. As for the applying the teacher can use: “What examples can you find to…?” and “How would you use…?” questions. The higher-order thinking skills require questions like: “Why do you think?” for analyzing, “How would you justify…?” for evaluating and “Can you invent?” for the creating.

 

After matching the skills with the lessons and activities and listing the questions which are appropriate to each level we can think about the verbs. These are the key words connected with the LOTS (lower-order thinking skills) and HOTS (higher-order thinking skills). Moreover, they describe the actions that students will perform. In this part I wrote: name (remembering), show (understanding), classify (analyzing), compare (evaluating), assume (analyzing), predict (creating) and test (creating). As for the questions I have: “What is…?”, “Can you select…?”, “How would you compare…?”, “Why do you think…?”, “What would happen if…?” and “How would you test…?”. This part was quite difficult, because it is important to encapsulate all the thinking skills from the lower-order to the higher-order. I managed to include five of them: remembering, understanding, analysing, evaluating and creating.

 

After considering and describing all the thinking skills, questions and verbs connected with them then we can move to the next step which is the culture. This part can be summarized as awareness of “self” and “others”, identity, citizenship and a process of pluricultural understanding (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). Here the teacher leads the students toward the understanding “others”, because it is likely that it will lead to deeper understanding of “self” (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). We need to show the pupils that their culture is not the only one and that there are different customs, clothes and even behaviours across the world. This knowledge will help the students to see the diversity of the world and may help them to better understand their own culture. This part is frequently being forgotten and that is why it may be difficult to describe. While planning the CLIL unit I was thinking about what aspects of culture can I include concerning the topic of water. I have to admit that I did not expect it to be such demanding task. After a long time of consideration I finally had an idea about introducing the meaning of water in different cultures and countries and the professions connected with it. To be more specific I wanted to get the children acquainted with The Holy Water in the Christianity, The Ganges River (Which is also called Ganga) and its meaning to the people in India, The Nile River in the beliefs of ancient Egyptians and the custom of rain invocation in the culture of Native Americans.

 

The last part of the 4 Cs framework is a communication. It can be summarized as all the interactions and the process of developing the language use and learning (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). CLIL gives the students the opportunity to use a language in a different way that they would use it during the traditional language lesson (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). The communication should be divided into three parts according to The Language Triptych (figure 1: The Language Triptych).

 

Figure 1: The Language Triptych

 

© Coyle, Hood, Marsh

 

These parts are: language of learning, language for learning and language through learning. Language of learning is the first aspect of Triptych. It describes the language that the students will need while approaching the new content (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). It is not only the key vocabulary and phrases that students will use during the lessons, but also grammatical demands of the unit. If the students are going to describe some processes then they should know how to do it (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). In my unit the students needed key words like: melt, froze, rain, oceans, rivers, seas, gas, fluid, solid, floats, sinks, raft, seed, plant, soil, Native Americans, The Ganges, Christianity,The Holy Water, The Nile, salt, sweat, water cycle, states of matter. As for the structures they needed: “I can see…,” “I think…”, “This is …”, “It lives in…” and “They are…”. The pupils also were using the following language structures: describing, justifying, predicting, hypothesizing and comparing.

 

The second aspect of The Language Triptych is language for learning. This is the most essential part if we want our CLIL lessons to be successful. It is the language that is used by students to operate in a classroom where the medium is the foreign language (in my case it was the second language). Moreover, it is the language that the pupils will need while the activities in order to carry them out successfully (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010).  The children that I had my practice with needed to answer the questions, language to hypothesize, language to explain why did something happened, language for describing and justifying.

 

The last part of The Triptych is the language through learning. It can be described as a new language that develops over the process of learning (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). Furthermore, the language and cognitive processing are linked which gives the teacher the opportunities to lead the learning (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). In my CLIL unit these were: extension of the explaining skills, hypothesizing and justifying. The students were conducting the experiments and they needed to be able to predict what in their opinion is going to happen and then test it and draw some conclusions.

 

The communication was the last part of the 4 Cs framework. Although the parts of the framework may be described and planned individually, they are not separate elements  (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). Fundamental to planning is treating the 4C’s as an integrated whole. We need to relate the areas together for example communication with cognition. That would require a very careful consideration of activities for the classroom in order to assure that learners have the access to both the content language and the classroom language needed to fulfil the tasks (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). However, the content is the one which leads the planning process forward the road of learning. This helps us to avert limitation of the content while matching the linguistic level of the students (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). It is also very probable that during the CLIL lessons the learners will have to get acquainted with some forms of language that they would normally be introduced to later in a a second or additional grammar lesson (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010). CLIL requires very cautious planning for the improvement in all Cs and at the same time each of the 4Cs may progress at the different proportion which is depended on the context. Moreover, this allows the teachers to use a more holistic approach in their classroom practice (Coyle, Hood & Marsh, 2010).

 

The last part of the process of designing the overall CLIL unit is describing the aims, objectives (connected with content, thinking, language, culture), the summary of the unit, materials and resources, instructional strategies, assessment and evaluation of the unit (this part has to be filled in after conducting the unit). The aims should be overall and that is why in my unit I wrote: to show the importance of water, to introduce the water cycle, to introduce different states of matter, to show meanings of water in different countries and cultures, to show different kinds and types of water, to experiment and test hypothesis. Objectives on the other hand have to be more specific. They describe what the students will be able to do. After my unit the learners will be able to: understand the importance of water, understand the water cycle and the states of matter, understand processes (melting, freezing etc.), hypothesize, describe, answer the questions, compare things, understand meanings of water in different countries and cultures, group water animals and animals that spend most of their time in water, understand that there are different kinds and types of water, test what floats and what sinks and create a raft.  The  next part is a summary, which is a short description of the aims and the vocabulary that we want to introduce. In my unit I wanted to: show the importance of water, introduce the water cycle, introduce different states of matter, show meanings of water in different countries and cultures, show different kinds and types of water, experiment with the students (what floats and what sinks), introduce new vocabulary ( jellyfish, starfish, seahorse, whale, shark, dolphin, octopus, beaver, frog, hippo, crocodile, melt, froze, rain, ocean, river, sea, gas, fluid, solid, floats, sinks, raft, seeds, plant, sprout, soil, Native Americans, The  Ganges, Christianity, The Holy Water,  The Nile, salt, sweat, water cycle, states of matter). We also cannot forget about the materials and resources that we are going to use during the lessons. I used  flashcards, handouts, pictures, pen drive, CD player, cut outs (raindrops), pieces of paper, cotton wool, containers (different shapes), water, big bowl, paper clip, piece of paper, rock, leaves, balloon, cotton wool, stick, pepper, cork, information about different countries and cultures (Native Americans, Christianity, India, Ganges) and popsicle sticks. The materials have to address as many senses as possible to increase the possibility to meet the needs of all the students.  I tried to use as many realia as I could. Visuals are also very helpful and we definitely cannot forget about TPR (total physical response) activities which combine the  auditory with kinaesthetic skills. Instructional strategies are the next thing that we have to think about while creating the unit. These are the methods that teacher is going to use during the lessons. I chose questioning, presenting the information and giving clues (leading the learners toward the answer). Those methods are useful in the student-centred classroom which was my goal.

 

The last three things that we have to describe are: assessment, evaluation and summary of the lessons. Assessment is the evidence that shows us if the activity was successful or not. Evaluation on the other hand is our opinion about the unit. In that part we can list the activities that failed and the reasons why we think it happened. I assessed my CLIL unit as a success. The students were answering my questions which led them to the answer. They were discovering and constructing the knowledge. Their explanations, descriptions and hypothesises were very precise. The students learned the new vocabulary and were able to use it during the activities. All these proved that I met the aims and objectives. As for my evaluation of the unit I think that I could improve few things, but generally it was quite successful. I had to adjust few activities, because they did not took that much time as I presumed, but I was prepared for that. The last part is the summary of the lessons. This includes the title and activities of each lesson.

 

After we finish planning the curriculum choice, the 4Cs framework and the overall unit then we can finally move to the last part of creating a CLIL unit which is preparing the specific lesson plans. Each of the lesson plan is divided into two parts. One is the general information including: the title, length, information about the class, overall instructional aims, objectives (for the content, language, cognition and culture), instructional strategies, justification for the lesson, assessment for/as learning and teaching materials. The second part is the table in which we describe the stage, procedure (description of the activities and instructional strategies) and the justification for the activity. In the content objectives we have to list the topics, facts and new understandings. In the language part there are some sections like content-obligatory language objectives and content-compatible language objectives. The first one are the skills that students need in order to understand the content. The second one on the other hand is about the skills that may be helpful during the lesson. The cognitive objectives are divided into two parts: lower-order thinking skills and higher-order thinking skills. The last are the objectives for the culture part and these concern the familiar concepts used in a new way and the unfamiliar concepts. However, it is not necessary to have the culture part in each lesson it is good to find at least some aspect that can be match with it. The instructional strategies are the methods used by the teacher during each lesson like building background, using scaffolding, integrating modalities. In the justification we have to explain why this lesson is important for the students. The next part is the assessment for/as learning in which the teacher has to decide if he or she is going to assess the knowledge that students have or is he or she going to assess them during the task. I chose the second one, because I wanted to see how much they remember and understand while doing the activities. The last are the teaching materials which are all the resources that we are planning to use for the lesson. Afterwards we can fill in the table with the stages (warm-up/introduction/ presentation/practice/cooler) , the procedure (description of the activities and instructional strategies) and the justification of each activity. The part with the procedure has to be very precise. This is the last part of the process of creating a CLIL unit. After describing the curriculum choice, the 4Cs framework, the overall unit and the lesson plans and preparing all the materials that are needed we can finally move to the next step which is conducting the lessons.

 

Reflections after conducting the CLIL unit

Being a teacher requires a great knowledge not only about the teaching and learning, but also about the environment of work. Moreover, the teacher has to be prepared for all situations. During my practice I had a very specific situation and I always had to be prepared. This preschool had a unique schedule of the day. There were situations were suddenly the English teacher had to make the classes shorter, because the children had some other classes moved to an earlier hour. However, there were also situations were she could devote more time to the classes.

 

Taking that into consideration while planning the CLIL unit I had some activities which were additional. I marked them with a star (see Appendix A). This activities could be used if there was time, but at the same time if there was a need to make a lesson shorter then I could resign from them. It is a good idea to have such activities prepared even if the someone has years of experience. Furthermore, I had to make some changes during the lessons. When there was a situation where there was still some time left or the children enjoyed the game so much that they wanted to do it again I had to change the amount of time that was allocated to the activities. I always tried to adjust to the students’ needs.

 

Sometimes they felt like sharing their opinions and sometimes they did not and I had to take that into consideration. Listening to the learners and making them feel important can help us in creating and maintaining a good rapport. I used different instructional strategies that were letting and helping the learners with the process of discovering new things and creating their knowledge. Moreover, they help the students to become more independent and can even built their confidence. I used the questioning, building knowledge and scaffolding.

 

The questioning is connected with the waiting time. Usually when the teacher asks a question he or she waits less the one second and then either answer the question themselves or just move to another (Black at al, 2004). This is the reason for the superficial level of the dialogue (Black at al, 2004). In order to avoid that kind of situation I extended the wait time. My goal was to involve the students into discovering and creating the knowledge and my questions served only as a clues that led them to the answer. Moreover, a very important part is asking the students “Why do you think that?” or “How can you explain that?”. These types of questions according to Black at al (2004) can help to create a interactive dynamic classroom and at the same time they can provide opportunities to extend the learner’s thinking by giving them immediate feedback. I used these kind of questions while the activity with the experiment. I asked the students “Do you think it will float?” and then they all were able to express their opinion and predict what is going to happen. Then I let the students test their hypothesis and see the results. After that I asked them “Why do you think it floats?” or “How can you explain that it sinks?”. That gave them the opportunity to really involve into the thinking process. I was surprised by how much the students knew and the way that they reach the conclusions.

 

The second strategy that I used was building knowledge. On every lesson I tried to built on what the learners already knew and go from familiar to unfamiliar. The last teaching method was the scaffolding. I tried to give the students some small clues that would help them to get the answer. All these strategies were to challenge the learners and help the to construct new knowledge. It is connected with the students’ Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). It is a zone in which the students are challenged to use skills which are too difficult for them to master on their own, but accessible with the help of a knowledgeable person (in this case the teacher, but it can also be a more capable peer).  I help them  by asking the questions and giving some clues that led them toward the answer and new knowledge. It was especially visible in the part with the experiment. I only helped the students , but they did all the thinking. In that way it is more probable that they will remember the new informations. Generally I focused more on the content then language. I wanted the students to create knew knowledge and to develop autonomy. CLIL is the best solution to accomplish that goal.

 

 Conclusions

First of all if we want to create a CLIL unit we have to be prepared to devote a great deal of time into thinking, planning and preparing the materials. The teacher needs to very carefully consider all the parts and all the variables that can affect his or her lessons. Thinking about and describing each part also requires some knowledge about CLIL and its principles. However, that kinds of lessons are beneficial for both the teacher and the learners. For the teacher it can a great challenge and a change. For the student on the other hand it can be something new, interesting and at the same time it can help them develop as an autonomous learner. They can create the knowledge and develop new skills or improve the ones they already have. Furthermore, as the pupils learn and make progress the teacher can feel satisfied for helping them. We also cannot forget that we always have to be prepared for the unexpected situations. Adjusting to the situation and what is more important to the students’ needs is an essential skills in being a teacher. Despite the fact that designing and conducting the CLIL unit may be challenging and time consuming it is above all very rewording for the learner and the teacher. In conclusion, although it took me a lot of time to design, describe and prepare all the things necessary for the unit it was a real pleasure to work with the children and see them develop and construct the knowledge. I was only guiding them toward the answers that helped them to understand new informations. It was all a great experience that thought me a lot. I think that all the teachers should at least try and see if CLIL is the right approach for their classroom.

 

References

Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2004). Working Inside the Black        Box: Assessment for Learning in the Classroom. Phi Delta Kappan, Vol. 86 #1, 8-21.

Coyle, D., Hood, P. & Marsh, D. (2010). CLIL. Content and Language Integrated Learning. CA:            Cambridge University Press, p. 1, 53-65.

 

Appendix

Template for CLIL Unit Plan for TEYL

 

Unit name: Water

Subject/Course: English

Teacher: Karolina Żyra

School Year: 2014/2015

Grade: 6 years old

Possible start/end dates: 23.04/13.05

Addressing Learners’ Diversified Needs: using multiple intelligences, different materials and tasks ­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­

Connections with National Curriculum (both language and content): in this preschool English teachers have to use a “Mother Goose Time” materials and one of them is about oceans and the animals that live there, the students will already know some things after this unit and the teacher can build on that knowledge. Moreover the Polish teacher is doing the topic of plants, so the students will know some parts of the plant in both Polish and English.

 

Unit Aims: To show the importance of water, to introduce the water cycle, to introduce different states of matter, to show meanings of water in different countries and cultures, to show different kinds and types of water, to experiment and test hypotheses

 

Unit  Objectives :

content

thinking

language

culture

Students will be able to:

understand the importance of water, understand the water cycle and the states of matter, understand processes (melting, freezing etc.), hypothesize, describe, answer the questions, compare things, understand meanings of water in different countries and cultures, group water animals and animals that spend most of their time in water, understand that there are different kinds and types of water, test what floats and what sinks, create a raft,

 

Summary of the unit To show the importance of water, to introduce the water cycle, to introduce different states of matter, to show various meanings of water in different countries and cultures, to show different kinds and types of water, to experiment (what floats and what sinks), to introduce new vocabulary ( jellyfish, starfish, seahorse, whale, shark, dolphin, octopus, beaver, frog, hippo, crocodile, melt, froze, rain, ocean, river, sea, gas, fluid, solid, floats, sinks, raft, seeds, plant, sprout, soil, Native Americans, The  Ganges, Christianity, The Holy Water,  The Nile, salt, sweat, water cycle, states of matter)

 

Unit Materials and Resources:

 

Flashcards, handouts, pictures, pen drive, CD player, cut-outs (raindrops), pieces of paper, cotton wool, containers (different shapes), water, big bowl, paper clip, piece of paper, rock, leaves, cotton wool, stick, pepper, cork, information about different countries and cultures (Native Americans, Christianity, India, The Ganges River), popsicle sticks, 

 

Instructional Strategies:

 

Questioning, presenting information, giving clues, building the background

 

Unit Assessment: The students were discovering and constructing new knowledge (in the experiment they were hypothesizing and then testing the hypothesis and drawing conclusions). Their explanations and descriptions were very precise(the water cycle game- they were able to explain and present). The students learned the new vocabulary and were able to use it during the activities (for example the game with grouping the animals- they were able to recognize the animal and evaluate if it is the right one). All the above prove that my unit met the aims.
Unit Evaluation: I had to change the activity with the water cycle, because it did not take that much time as I though it would, but I had some additional ideas to use just in case. Generally I think that it was a success. The students constructed the knowledge and I just led them.

 

Summary of Lessons

Lesson 1 Title: Who needs water? 1*.Drop, drop, stop. 2.All living things need water. 3.People are from water. 4.What plants need to grow? 5.Animals and their need for water. 6*.I am a fish. 7. *Draw a fish.

Lesson 2 Title: Types of water. 1.What’s that? 2.Water and animals. 3.Salt or sweat? 4. *Draw an animal living in water or an animal that spends a lot of time in the water.

Lesson 3 Title:Water cycle. 1.Water goes round. 2.Let’s count drops. 3.Let’s make a cloud.

Lesson 4 Title:States of matter. 1.States of matter (charades, *melt the ice). 2.Less, more or the same? 3.Floats or sinks?

Lesson 5 Title:Why do we need water? 1.Water in different countries and cultures. 2.Let’s invocate the rain. 3.Creating a raft.

Lesson 6 Title:Water in sports. 1.Different meaning of water in sports. 2.Water sports- charades. 3.Health and water.

Lesson 7 Title:Water in everyday life. 1.Water in our life. 2.Water and professions. 3.Ecology

Lesson 8 Title:Sounds of water. 1.What sounds water makes. 2.Being rain. 3.Playing on wine glasses.

 

Notes:

Lesson 6. 1. The teacher presents how we use water in different sports. We can swim in the water. We can jump into water. We can scuba dive in the water. We can sail or surf on the water etc. The teacher shows them some pictures. The teacher tells them about unusual water sports in different countries. 2. Charades. The teacher mimes some sports connected with water and the students have to guess the name and then the students show and the rest of the class has to guess. 3. The meaning of the water in health. The teacher asks students “Why do we need water?” And “What will happen without water?” Then the teacher explains that water is relevant for our body. That we should drink 2 l each day.

 

Lesson 7. 1. The teacher asks students “Where you can find water?” Then the teacher tells about water in our lives. That we can find it in our homes and vegetables and fruits. 2. The teacher asks the students if they know any professions/ jobs connected with water. Then they look at some examples (fireman, plumber, swimmer, lifeguard, sailors). The teacher asks students if they know any of them. 3. The teacher tells the students how important is not to waste water, because it is so important. He or she asks the students what we can do if in order to save water. * additionally the teacher can take students to see the place were a fireman work.

 

Lesson 8. 1. The teacher asks the students what sounds can the water make (dropping, heavy rain). Then he or she gives the students a piece of newspaper. Students have to use it to make a sound of rain. 2. The teacher plays the CD with the sound of rain (first drops than louder and louder). The students have to move to what they hear. They have to “be” the rain (first move slowly and them faster and faster and be louder). 3. The last part of the lesson is devoted to playing on the wine glasses. The teacher has to prepare the wine glasses and fill them with water and show the students how to play and then the pupils can try. The children can also add some water and see if the sound changes.

 

Content-Thinking-Language Organization for TEYL CLIL Unit

 

Content

 

Thinking

 

Language

 

Culture (Intercultural Knowledge)
Relevant, academic, real-life, deep content

Content is the starting point for the planning

 

What will I teach?

What will they learn?

What are my teaching aims/objectives?

 

Which tasks will I develop to encourage higher order thinking?

 

What are the language (communication) as well as the content implications?

 

Which thinking skills will we concentrate on which are appropriate for the content?

 

 

 

 

 

What language do they need to work with the content?

 

What specialized vocabulary and phrases?

 

What kind of talk will they engage in?

 

Will I need to check out key grammatical coverage of a particular tense or feature e.g. comparatives and superlatives?

 

What language tasks and classroom activities?

What are the cultural implications of the topic?

 

What are the familiar cultural concepts?

 

What are the unfamiliar cultural concepts?

 

 

Topic:

 

Water

Levels of Thinking (Blooms):

remembering, understanding, analyzing,

evaluating, creating

Language functions:

answering the questions, describing, justifying, predicting, hypothesizing, comparing

 
Facts (nouns):

water cycle, states of matter, importance of water, types of water, kinds of water, water animals, water in culture, water in everyday life, water in sport,

Verbs:

name, show, classify, compare, assume, predict, test

Key language structures:

“I can see…”,” I think…”, “This is …”, “It lives in…”, “They are…”,

 
Big understandings (“Students will understand that…”)

all living things need water, there are different types and kinds of water, the water is going in a cycle in nature, there are different states of matter and it involves some processes, in different cultures and countries water has various meanings,

Questions:

“What is…?”, “Can you select…?”,        ”How would you compare…?”, “Why do you think…?”, “What would happen if…?”,”How would you test…?”

Key vocabulary:

jellyfish, starfish, seahorse, whale, shark, dolphin, octopus, beaver, frog, hippo, crocodile, melt, froze, rain, ocean, river, sea, gas, fluid, solid, floats, sinks, raft, seeds, plant, sprout, soil, Native Americans, The  Ganges River, Christianity, The Holy Water,  The Nile River, salt, sweat, water cycle, states of matter,

 
Essential Question (high level thinking questions):

“What are the connections between the animals and their need for water?”, “What are the connections between water cycle and the water’s states of matter?”, “What floats and what sinks and why?”, “What do we need to make a raft?”

  Modes of communication:

presentational, interpersonal,

 
    Targeted strategies:

justifying, using previous knowledge, describing, comparing, grouping, ordering, making predictions, experimenting

 

 

 

CLIL Lesson Plan Template for TEYL

Date: 23.04.2015

School: Preschool “Ciuchcia Puch Puch”

Teacher: Karolina Żyra/mentor teacher Magda Selwiak

Subject: English

 

Lesson title

 

Who needs water?              
Class length  30- 35 minutes              
Class/ student information  8 students/ 6 years old

 

             
Overall instructional

aims

 To introduce new vocabulary, to involve students by asking questions, to lead students to the right answer or a conclusion, to practice the new vocabulary,              
Objectives content Topics: water in our body, plant’s growth, animals need water too, comparing different animals and their need for water (dog, fish), drawing a fish

 

Facts:people are made of water, plants need water to grow, all living things need water, there are some differences between animals and their need for water

 

New understandings:

Students will understand that:people are made of water, all living things need water, there are some differences between the animals and their need for water

 

language Content-obligatory language objectives

Learners will be able to:

describe the animals, answer the questions

Content-compatible language objectives

Learners will be able to:

compare the animals

Language functions:describing, comparing, answering questions,

Key language structures: “It’s a…”, “It has …”

Key vocabulary:human, water, seed, soil, sun, water, tail, ears, eyes, scale, flower, fin

 

cognition

 

Lower-order thinking skills:

remembering, understanding

Higher-order thinking skills:

analyzing, evaluating

culture Familiar concepts used in a new way:

Unfamiliar concepts:

Instructional strategies (building background, using learning phases, integrating modalities, using scaffolding, etc.)

Describe briefly

Using scaffolding (asking questions that will lead students), building background (showing flashcards with vocabulary then explaining it and demonstrating), going from familiar things to unfamiliar and new information              
Justification for lesson

(why is it important to your students)

It is important to know that all living things need water. We are made of water and it is relevant for kids to know that and be able to justify that. Also the most important is to be able to see some patterns and connections and be able to compare.              
Assessment  for/as learning Assessment during the task (observing students during the game if they understood and remember the order)              
Teaching

materials

Flashcards (human, plant, a dog, a fish, sun, seed, soil, water, flower), 3 handouts with different percentage of water in the human body, pen drive with the sounds of water dropping, CD player              

 

Stages and time Lesson procedure (describe the activities and instructional strategies) Justification for the activity (content, language, cognition, culture)
Warm up

2 min.

“Drop. Drop. Stop”-children listen to the sounds of dropping water and they have to move around and when it stops they have to stop. This activity is not only a warm up, but also a way of introducing the students to the new topic.
Presentation

3 min.

All living things need water- first the teacher asks students what they think the topic is and they guess, then the teacher asks who needs water(people, plants and animals), then the teacher shows the flashcards (a human, a plant, a fish, a dog) In this activity the teacher asks questions to lead the students to the answer. The children have to think about their experience and they have to use their prior knowledge. Questions are suppose to activate their thinking.
Presentation and practice

5 min.

People are made of water- in this part the teacher explains that we all are made of water and that in our system there is 72% of it. Then the teacher asks some questions about how we can prove that in our body we have water (tears, sweat). Then the teacher shows the 3 handouts with the human and some different percentages and the students have to chose the correct one and justify their answer. In this part again the questions are used in order to maintain the students’ thinking and to keep them involved in the lesson. The teacher can give them some clues, but not the answer. It develops the pupils’ autonomy. Then they have to show that they understood by choosing the right handout. They also have to justify their answer. The pupils will learn that we are made of water and that we can prove it.
Presentation and practice

5-7 min.

What plants need to grow? In this part the teacher again starts with the questions. “Why the plants need water?”(to grow). “And what else do they need?” Then he or she shows them the flashcards(sun, water, soil, seed, sprout, flower). The teacher presents all the vocabulary and the pupils repeat and then repeat using funny voices. Then the students have to put the flashcards into the right order from seed and the things it needs to the flower. Then the teacher plays the game “what’s missing?” with them. He or she asks them to close their eyes and takes one flashcard and the students have to guess. Questioning is used to keep students involved and to make them think and use their knowledge. In this part the students need to use their knowledge in a different way. Also the teacher uses drilling to teach the new vocabulary and a game which checks students memory.
Presentation and practice

5 min.

Animals and their need for water. In this part the teacher shows the students the flashcards with a dog and a fish. The students have to describe the animals. Then the teacher asks them why these animals need water and if there are any differences between them. In this part again questions are used to maintain the thinking process and to keep students involved. The students use their knowledge in a new way and can discover new things. They know the animals and why they need water but they will notice that there are some differences between the animals and their need of water.
Cooler

3 min.

I am a fish. In this activity first the teacher shows the flashcard with a fish and describes it using words like scale, tail, fin and shows them in the flashcard. Then the teacher shows the actions like: breathing like a fish, swimming like a fish and the pupils repeat the words and do the actions. The students will learn new vocabulary about the animal that they know well. They will play a game to help them remember the vocabulary.
Art

10 min.

Draw a fish. The students sit at the table and their task is to draw a fish (a fish in the aquarium or in the lake).  

 

CLIL Lesson Plan Template for TEYL

Date: 28.04.2015

School: Preschool “Ciuchcia Puch Puch”

Teacher: Karolina Żyra/mentor teacher Magda Selwiak

Subject: English

Lesson title

 

Types of water              
Class length 45 minutes              
Class/ student information  8 students/ 6 years old

 

             
Overall instructional

aims

To introduce different types of water, to introduce different animals and to group them, to show students examples of salt ans sweat water              
Objectives content Topics:types of water on our planet, different animals living in the water or spending most of their time in water, salt and sweat water- examples

 

Facts: there are different types of water, there are various animals that live in the water or spend most of their time in water, there are two kinds of water – salt and sweat,

 

New understandings:

Students will understand that:

there are different types of water and there are various animals that live in  the water or spend most of their time in it

language Content-obligatory language objectives

Learners will be able to:

describe, answer questions

Content-compatible language objectives

Learners will be able to:

explain

Language functions:

describing,explaining

Key language structures:

“It’s a ….”, “It’s …”

Key vocabulary:

shark, whale, jellyfish, starfish, seahorse, dolphin, octopus, fish, hippo, crocodile, frog, beaver, sea, ocean, river, lake, rain, salt, sweat

cognition

 

Lower-order thinking skills:

remembering, understanding,

Higher-order thinking skills:

analyzing,

culture Familiar concepts used in a new way:

 

Unfamiliar concepts:

 

Instructional strategies (building background, using learning phases, integrating modalities, using scaffolding, etc.)

Describe briefly

Scaffolding (leading students to an answer, asking questions, giving clues)

Basing on their previous knowledge(using something familiar to introduce new concepts)

             
Justification for lesson

(why is it important to your students)

Students know water animals and animals that spend most of their life in water. Water is everywhere and it is useful to know that there are different kinds of it.              
Assessment  for/as learning Assessing students ability to use the previous knowledge during the task              
Teaching

materials

Flashcards with water animals and animals that spend most of their time in the water(starfish, fish, shark, jellyfish, dolphin, seahorse, octopus, whale, frog, hippo, beaver, crocodile )a map of the world, pictures (sea, ocean, river, lake, The Black Sea, rain)              

 

Stages and time Lesson procedure (describe the activities and instructional strategies) Justification for the activity (content, language, cognition, culture)
Presentation

5-7 min.

What’s that?- Different types of water. The teacher shows the students some pictures with types of water (ocean,sea, river, lake, rain) and asks students “What’s that?”. The children repeat the names using funny voices. The teacher also shows the students the map where they can find seas, oceans, rivers, lakes. This activity is the introduction to the next activity, but at the same time it provides students with some content about different types of water. Pupils learn new vocabulary.
Presentation and practice

10-15 min.

Water and animals. In this activity first the teacher shows students the flashcards with the animals living in water and animals that spend most of their time in water and asks them “What’s that?.” Then the whole group practices the names by repeating them and performing some actions at the same time(jump on one leg, touch your nose). Then the teacher divides them into two groups. Each group has to take the specific flashcards and put them into their box (animals living in the water and the second group the animals that spend most of their time in water).Then the whole class checks if the groups did the exercise right.

*Then the students can switch the groups.

This activity provides new vocabulary for students and it also requires their thinking and using the prior knowledge.
Presentation and practice

10 min.

Salt or Sweat? First the teacher explains that there are two kinds of water: salt and sweat. Then the teacher asks students which type of the water is salt and which is sweat by showing the picture. Then the students play a game. The teacher shows the picture and explains that if the water in the picture is salt they have to jump on right side and if it’s sweat than on the left side. This part is giving students the knew knowledge of kinds of water. Students use their prior knowledge to decide if the specific type of water is salt or sweat. The game helps children to remember the new informations.
Art

10 min.

Draw animals. The students have to draw some animals (that lives in water or that spends most of the time in the water or both).  

 

CLIL Lesson Plan Template for TEYL

Date: 07.05.2015

School: Preschool “Ciuchcia Puch Puch”

Teacher: Karolina Żyra/mentor teacher: Magda Selwiak

Subject: English

Lesson title

 

Water cycle              
Class length 30 minutes              
Class/ student information  8 students / 6 year old

 

             
Overall instructional

aims

To introduce the water cycle, to practice mathematical skills (addition, subtraction), to make an art project – create a visual representation of the water cycle              
Objectives content Topics: water cycle, counting drops, making a cloud

 

Facts:water cycles in the nature

 

New understandings:

Students will understand that:

water cycles in the nature

language Content-obligatory language objectives

Learners will be able to:

count (using the names of the numbers),

Content-compatible language objectives

Learners will be able to:

describe what is the the raindrop doing (going up, down, making a cloud)

Language functions:

describing

Key language structures:

“It goes up.” “It makes a cloud.” “It goes down.”

Key vocabulary:

raindrop, water cycle, goes up, goes down, makes a cloud, numbers (from one to twenty)

cognition

 

Lower-order thinking skills:

remembering,understanding

Higher-order thinking skills:

 

culture Familiar concepts used in a new way:

 

Unfamiliar concepts:

Instructional strategies (building background, using learning phases, integrating modalities, using scaffolding, etc.)

Describe briefly

Building background (using flashcards to introduce new vocabulary), scaffolding (simplifying the concepts and processes to make them comprehensible)              
Justification for lesson

(why is it important to your students)

The students can see the water cycle, but they do not understand it. After this lesson they will know how the rain origins and other processes in the water cycle. They will see the connections between the mathematics and the everyday life.              
Assessment  for/as learning  The students will be assessed during the activity (showing or telling about the water cycle)              
Teaching

materials

Flashcard (the water cycle), cut-outs (rain drops), materials for making a cloud (piece of blue paper and cotton wool, glue, cut-outs of raindrops)              

 

 

Stages and time Lesson procedure (describe the activities and instructional strategies) Justification for the activity (content, language, cognition, culture)
Introduction and short revision

2-3 min.

The teacher asks some questions (How are you? Last time we talked about the monkeys right?) to see if the children remember the topic and to get their attention. Then the teacher shows them the flashcards from the last lesson (river, lake, ocean, sea, rain) and asks what’s that? This is the introduction and at the same time attention grabber and a short revision to see if the students remember the vocabulary.
Presentation and practice

10 min.

Water goes round. In this part the teacher introduces the water cycle step by step. The teacher shows the picture with the cycle and explains how the water travels (first the water goes up and makes a cloud etc.). Then the teacher explains again, but with showing the gestures. Then the teacher tells it again and students show. The last part is that the teacher shows and asks some questions (water goes up or down?)and students answer. Then the teacher can use a cut out of a raindrop to show the cycle. The next part is when the students pretend to be a rain drop ans show what is the drop doing in each step. The last activity is the raindrop cycle. The students have the raindrops in different colours (white, dark blue, blue) and they have to built a water cycle from them (white for the cloud, dark blue for the rain and blue for the water in the river that goes up). The students have seen the rain many times, but after this lesson they will be able to explain where it comes from.
Practice

5

min.

Let’s count drops. In this activity the teacher shows the students the cut outs of the raindrops and asks them what it is. Then the teacher tells the students that it is raining and we have to count all the raindrops. The students count. Then the teacher can do some subtracting and adding to practice with the students. In this activity the students can practice their mathematical skills like adding and subtracting and what is more they can see that we can use mathematics in everyday life.
Art

13-15

min.

Let’s make a cloud. The teacher asks students to sit at the tables. He or she gives them a blue piece of paper and some materials (blue paper, cotton wool, glue, cut outs of raindrops). Then the teacher tells the students to glue the cotton wool to the paper. Then the students have to glue the raindrops inside the cloud (white),coming from the cloud (blue) and going to the cloud (dark blue).  

 

CLIL Lesson Plan Template for TEYL

Date: 12.05.2015

School: Preschool “Ciuchcia Puch Puch”

Teacher: Karolina Żyra/mentor teacher:Magda Selwiak

Subject: English

Lesson title

 

Water – States of matter              
Class length 35-45 minutes              
Class/ student information  8 students / 6 years old

 

             
Overall instructional

aims

 To introduce states of matter, to show that if we pour the same amount of water into containers of different shapes the amount is not going to change although it may look like it, to experiment, hypothesize and test the hypotheses and draw conclusions              
Objectives content Topics: states of matter, pouring the water into different containers, what floats and what sinks

 

Facts: there are different states of matter, if we pour the same amount of water to containers with different shapes the amount will stay the same, some objects float and some objects sink

 

New understandings:

Students will understand that:there are different states of matter and they are connected to the water cycle, different shapes of containers are not going to change the amount of water, some things float and some things sink

 

language Content-obligatory language objectives

Learners will be able to:

describe, answer the questions

Content-compatible language objectives

Learners will be able to:

hypothesize, make predictions, explain

Language functions:

describing, hypothesizing, making predictions

Key language structures:

“It’s a … (gas, liquid, solid)”, “I think it (sinks,floats)”, “It (sinks, floats)”

Key vocabulary:

ice, steam, rain, solid, liquid, gas, floats, sinks, more, less, the same

cognition

 

Lower-order thinking skills:

remembering, understanding

Higher-order thinking skills:

analyzing, creating

culture Familiar concepts used in a new way:

 

Unfamiliar concepts:

Instructional strategies (building background, using learning phases, integrating modalities, using scaffolding, etc.)

Describe briefly

Using scaffolding (asking questions, letting students to discover independently, leading them to an answer), building background (first theoretical knowledge and then practice)              
Justification for lesson

(why is it important to your students)

Students can see the states of matter and after this lesson they will understand and be able to explain them. They will also learn how to make predictions and how to conduct an experiment.              
Assessment  for/as learning Students will be assessing their own knowledge by making predictions and then seeing the results.              
Teaching

materials

Flashcards (states of matter), jars or containers of different shapes, water, big bowl, paper clip, rock, piece of paper, leaf, pepper, stick, popsicle sticks, cotton wool, sponge, cork              

 

Stages and time Lesson procedure (describe the activities and instructional strategies) Justification for the activity (content, language, cognition, culture)
Introduction and short revision 3-4 min. The teacher asks students what they were talking about last time. Then the teacher asks them if they remember the water cycle and then asks them to present it (the students show and describe each step).  
Presentation and practice

10-15

min.

States of matter. The teacher shows the students the flashcards with the different states of matter and asks them what’s in the picture. Then they practice the names of the states by repeating them with funny voices and then doing some actions(showing the states). Then the teachers asks if the states are connected with something that they already know. The teacher elaborates on this connection and then the whole group plays a game. “What am I?” First the teacher demonstrates how to play a game. The students have to pretend to be one state of matter (show it with their body) and the rest has to guess. *The last game is called “melt the ice”. The students work in two groups. Each group gets an ice cube and their task is to melt it with their hands as fast as possible. This part of the lesson gives students new knowledge and leads them to see the connections between the states of matter and the water cycle. The game helps them to remember the vocabulary.
Practice

7-10 min.

“Less, more or the same?” The teacher presents to the  students containers of different shapes and pours water into one of them. Then he or she asks one students to pour the water into different container and asks students if the amount of water changed or if it’s the same. They do the same thing with all the containers and then the teacher asks students how is it possible. Then the teacher explains that it may look like the amount has changed, but it does not. This part of the lesson gives the students the opportunity to learn new things by experiencing them and hypothesizing. They can explore things with their own hands.
Practice

10-16

min.

Floats or sinks? The teacher brings the big bowl of water and some things (paper clip, sponge, leaf, rock, stick,cork, piece of paper, pepper, cotton wool, popsicle stick). Then the teacher shows the students one object and asks if they think it will float or sink. The children give their answers and then the teacher asks them to see if they were right or not. Then the teacher asks why it floats or why it sinks. Then they do the same steps with other objects. *Children can also propose other things that they want to try out (crayons, blocks). This part of the lesson is devoted to developing students thinking skills like hypothesizing. The children will learn how to experiment and they will discover things by themselves. They will predict, try and then learn from the result.

 

CLIL Lesson Plan Template for TEYL

Date: 13.05.2015

School: Preschool “Ciuchcia Puc Puch”

Teacher: Karolina Żyra/mentor teacher Magda Selwiak

Subject: English

Lesson title

 

Why water is important?              
Class length  45 minutes              
Class/ student information  8 students / 6 years old

 

             
Overall instructional

aims

 To introduce the meaning of water in different countries and cultures, to introduce the rain incantation, to create a raft              
Objectives content Topics: water in different countries and cultures, rain invocation, how to make a raft

 

Facts: water has various meanings in different countries and cultures, The Native Americans used to invocate rain, what do we need to make a raft

 

New understandings:

Students will understand that:water has various meanings in different countries and cultures, The Native Americans used to invocate water, they need the things that float to make a raft

 

language Content-obligatory language objectives

Learners will be able to:

describe, answer questions,

Content-compatible language objectives

Learners will be able to:

explain

Language functions:

describing, answering questions,explaining

Key language structures:

“It’s a …”, “I need…”, “It (floats or sinks)”

Key vocabulary: India, Native Americans,The  Ganges River, Christianity, baptism, rain invocation, The Holy Water, The Nile River, Ancient Egyptians

cognition

 

Lower-order thinking skills:

remembering, understanding, applying

Higher-order thinking skills:

creating

culture Familiar concepts used in a new way:

Unfamiliar concepts:

various meanings of water in different countries and cultures, rain invocation

Instructional strategies (building background, using learning phases, integrating modalities, using scaffolding, etc.)

Describe briefly

Using familiar concepts in a new way,              
Justification for lesson

(why is it important to your students)

 The students will learn about different cultures and countries and the meaning of water there. The children will have the opportunity to perform the rain invocation. They will also use the knowledge from the previous lessons to create a raft.              
Assessment  for/as learning  The students’ knowledge will be assessed during the activity- creating the raft.              
Teaching

materials

 Information about water in different countries and cultures, materials for making the raft (popsicle sticks, paper, string), information about the procedure of rain invocation              

 

Stages and time Lesson procedure (describe the activities and instructional strategies) Justification for the activity (content, language, cognition, culture)
Presentation

10-15

min.

Water in countries and cultures. The teacher presents the information about the water in cultures and countries (Ancient Egypt, The Nile River, India, The Ganges River, Christianity,The Holy water, Native Americans). The teacher shows some pictures and explains the customs connected with water. The students will learn about different countries and their customs related to water.
Presentation and Practice

10-15

min.

“Let’s invocate the rain”. First the teacher presents the rain invocation step by step and the students repeat the actions. Then the children try to perform it few times with and without the teacher. This activity enables students to experience the new knowledge and no to only listen or see. They will be able to do things, to learn them by doing and feeling.
Practice-Art project

15 min.

Creating a raft. The teacher gives students different materials (string, popsicle sticks, paper, leafs, rock). First the teacher asks students what do they think is good for creating a raft and how would they build it. Students share their ideas and then go and create their rafts. In this part of the lesson the students use the knowledge from previous lessons. They can share their ideas and use their creativity and then actually try and build it.

 

 Appendix B

Sample of materials used during the lessons

 

  indian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Published: 2015-06-19